The Chinese Immigration Act of 1923, often referred to as the Chinese Exclusion Act, effectively closed off Chinese immigration to Canada. Although immigration from most countries was controlled or restricted in some way, only the Chinese were completely prohibited from immigrating.
Before 1923, Chinese immigration was already heavily controlled by the Chinese Immigration Act of 1885, which put a head tax on all immigrants from China. Above is a picture of a head tax form from 1912.
Established on July 1, 1923, the Act had banned Chinese immigrants from entering Canada. Since Dominion Day (Canada Day) coincided with the enforcement of the Chinese Immigration Act, Chinese-Canadians at the time referred to the anniversary of Confederation as “Humiliation Day”.
It was not until 1947 that Canada finally repealed the Chinese Exclusion Act.